Humans Losing out to Technology

There are countless ways in which advanced technologies have helped mankind over the years. The current (and future, for sure) rapid pace of technological development, will, no doubt, continue to render advanced capabilities to people, businesses and governments like what we could not have imagined even yesterday.

Technology is almost on a free roll now – nobody can stop its non-stop progress and achievements, and it is the way it should be. The challenge now is adoption and ongoing utilization of technologies – let us not forget the actual fact on the ground that over 3B (yes, billion) people in this planet do not have access to the internet (most of them do not have access to electricity or clean water or sanitation either). There is a lot of work to do before we get everyone in the world connected.

In the meanwhile, the military applications of technology are proceeding at a faster pace, as the world’s super powers race against each other to get the upper hand, which will never be used as there will be no global war between or amongst the super powers due to the possibility of total annihilation of this world as we know it today.

In this context, I was horrified to view the video of the huge destructive impact of tiny drones launched in a warfare situation, put up on social media by Stuart Russell, a University of California Berkeley Computer Science Professor.

Take a look at Future of Life Institute Autonomous Weapons Ban and

Slaughterbots Video CNN article and YouTube video


Professor Russell says “Trained as a team, [the drones] can penetrate buildings, cars, trains, all while having the capacity to evade any countermeasure. They cannot be stopped,”.

He noted that “a $25 million order” can now buy a swarm of such tiny “slaughterbots” that could kill half a city.

Professor Russell said that although A.I.’s “potential to benefit humanity is enormous, even in defense,” allowing the widespread use of machines that “choose to kill humans will be devastating to our security and freedom.”


These tiny mini-drones which have destructive military uses are now called “autonomous slaughterbots” and are unleashed in a “drone swarm” from the underbelly of a bomber plane. These are now rightfully characterized as “weapons of mass destruction” as a small band of military men can essentially bring a country to its knees by launching a slaughterbot attack which will raze an entire city to the ground and kill millions of people at one go – more effective than a nuclear weapon which is much more expensive to build, maintain and use. In today’s world, even a kid knows what a drone is, but do we really understand how nations can get completely out of control with this technology which is like a powerful machine gun or multi-barrelled missile launcher, the only difference being that the slaughterbots can come in thousands to obliterate an entire battlefield or a city.

There is no current counter-attack mechanism against an attack by slaughterbots. Even more worrying is the fact that the “attacked” cannot easily figure out who is the “attacker”, or where they are located. How do you attack someone who you do not know, or whose location cannot be determined. So, we are now in faceless military attacks, and all that it takes is one small band of rogue folks who know this technology. Let us not forget that both “good” and “bad” guys now have drones, and also that the “good” guys could be indiscriminate in their plans and attacks sometimes.

So, the world is getting to be a deadlier place than it ever was in its history. Drones can target individulas anywhere in the world, and are being enhanced to penetrate any kind of structure to reach to the designated target. Further, drone swarms “act” like a swarm, in the sense that they will coordinate their attack plan with each other, leading to a scalability that does not exist today. We are essentially looking at the collective brain power of a slaughterbot drone swarm, which could be as deadly as a nuclear weapon without incurring all the risks of a war.

Welcome to the slaughterbot era, friends. It is critical that we protest against such weapons of mass destruction, these are much worse than land mines.

Cheers (and No Cheers!),

Vijay Srinivasan

26th November 2017



Europe under siege

Week after week, Europe seems to be encountering terrorist attacks.

I would not be surprised if European Union decides to close its borders against any immigration, and tightens the country borders vigorously in the coming months. May be it is time for Europe to adopt and implement some of the national security initiatives which have secured the U.S. borders more or less effectively against foreign threats.

France has suffered the most with three serious attacks in the past 18 months. Now comes Munich, considered to be generally safe. Germany has been the most lenient country in Europe when it comes to receiving and handling immigrants. Now it has to rethink. France has already assumed emergency powers of search and arrest.

One could not have imagined that European countries would come under terrorist attacks, as here was a collection of countries that became more welcoming of immigrants (unfortunately terrorists are hidden amongst the flow of immigrants) and have treated their foreign-born population more or less well. However, now it has become amply clear to the governments of the Netherlands, France, Germany, and other countries that their laissez faire approach to security, investigation, and law enforcement would no longer continue to work.

I am a supporter of ruthless law enforcement actions when faced with terrorism. I believe that India has become a good example of not willing to accept usual practices in law enforcement in various parts of the country, surely against the Maoist insurgents in the North East and Jammu & Kashmir militants in the North. It cannot be business as usual when the country is under constant attack and normal business activities have to be suspended and the normal life of law-abiding citizens is being threatened. One would need a lot of steely nerves when it comes to handling home-grown terrorism, and part of Europe’s problems is that it does not have a strategy to deal with that threat.

All citizens are unfortunately NOT equal, and it is critical for governments to monitor ALL citizens and all immigrants today, irrespective of race, religion, ethnic origin or gender. All tourists have to be monitored as well. This would necessitate complete control over airwaves, and full coverage of the country with eavesdropping and monitoring technologies. There is no choice, as the first priority of ANY government is to save the lives of its law-abiding citizens.

If such actions threaten human right activists, so be it. Human rights have to wait longer to attain their fulfillment when more serious and threatening priorities take over. I agree it would require a well-meaning government not to start trampling on human rights of ordinary citizens. The example being set by a democratic government in Turkey is not a good one, but let us remember that Turkey is acting against coup plotters and not terrorists. May be both categories are the same in the eyes of a government, but Turkey has all but ensured that it would not get admittance into the European Union. But that is exactly the point. The European Union needs to review its charter of Human Rights. Not all is well with Europe, and it is high time the EU starts paying attention and committing resources towards its home-grown terrorism threat. It would certainly mean that the EU has to take bold, tough and aggressive actions – may not all in line with its ideals and principles.

Terrorism is a present danger and will continue in all parts of the world if governments do not collaborate and take collective action against is insidious threat to civilization. Let us forget about attributing reasons for the growth in terrorism. There are no good or bad terrorists – ALL terrorists are just bad. No religion permits carnage against innocent civilians and children. No government should also authorize attacks against civilians.

People like us should send our suggestions to our governments or to the United Nations. There should be vigorous action and support for eliminating (may not be entirely possible however) or at least reducing the threat of terrorism, and that would also mean entirely removing access to weapons for the common man on the street. We should all accept more limits on our personal freedoms, to ensure the safety of ourselves and our fellow human beings.

Radical, but required necessity in today’s world. Europe needs to do its bit, to save Europeans, and preserve their values for the future.


Vijay Srinivasan

24th July 2016


The mystery of the missing airliner

MH370 was another usual flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, amongst hundreds of such flights from South East Asian countries. With a well-regarded service reputation, Malaysia Airlines (MAS) is the flagship air carrier of Malaysia, with generally good performance in meeting customer expectations. I have taken their flights a number of times, but usually for the short hop between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.

For the past over 2 weeks, the world has been abuzz with the mystery of the missing flight, which originated in Kuala Lumpur, destined to reach Beijing in China. It had 229 passengers, including the crew. Such instances of missing flights are indeed rare, and there has been no official cause established for its disappearance as the MH370 is yet to be located.

While the circumstances surrounding its disappearance are mysterious, it is unlikely to be terrorism as no motive has been established, no ransom has been called, no political terror group has claimed responsibility, and generally, there has been no ownership of what happened from any quarters around the world. One is led to “derive” rather than conclude that the flight just got maneuvered by someone on board into a different direction and the motive for doing so is yet to be established.

I sometimes wonder why the Pilot gets the authority to turn off the transponder of his own flight from the cockpit – I think this is a general fallibility which is yet to be fixed across the world. Why would anyone have the authorisation to decouple the transponder ?

The other aspect is that the satellite communications capability which works so well for weather predictions and military purposes, seems to have some limitations in locating the spot of the aircraft disappearance though the location of the last handshake between a satellite and the aircraft has now been determined. There seem to be some technical challenges.

Countries seem to be worried about sharing their national radar tracking data in this world of openness when competitive governments would anyway know the limitations of their neighbouring countries. This should not have been an acceptable practice in the case of natural or artificial disasters, wherein the policy should have been to cooperate intensely without any limitations whatsoever. Even countries afar from the original location of radar disappearance do not seem to be sharing radar data freely, not wanting to expose their inefficiencies or lack of comprehensive coverage. This is nothing short of ridiculous.

Well, there are so many impatient and grieving family members of the 229 folks who seem to have completely disappeared from this world who are all waiting for some news which is more deterministic than all that they have so far heard. Let us think of them rather than worrying about national security.

No Cheers,

Vijay Srinivasan
22nd March 2014

Aftermath of Spying Revelations

Edward Snowden’s revelations about spying by the NSA of the U.S. have caused consternation around the world. Not just amongst the governments who have been spied upon. Even innocent individuals have their call data collected by the NSA which has been acting like a major data suction engine.

But are things going to be any different going forward ?

Not at all, despite any claims to the contrary.

It is absolutely critical for governments to spy upon other governments. This has been a truism all this while, for more than a thousand years, or even more. Collecting intelligence about the intentions of both friends and enemies is considered by all governments as crucial in their efforts to forecast the future. Is there anything unusual about it ? No, not at all.

What is the difference now ? Edward Snowden walked out of the NSA with troves of unnecessary information which revealed the extent of spying by the NSA, even on friendly allied countries like Germany. The debates that are raging around the capitals of the countries who have been spied upon, and the intense debate in the U.K. about the role of the Guardian newspaper, etc., are too well documented for me to recant anything here in substance. So, the only thing now is that the world seems to be having “proof” that indeed such spying takes place but what has appalled all is the extent and scale of the spying activities that seems to be going on all over the world.

The U.S. Government has taken a measured approach in its cautious responses to spying allegations that have been levelled against the NSA. The Congressional “investigation” is not going to change any behaviour except to proclaim that the Congress has done its due diligence belatedly, and there will be some protective measures put in place to safeguard the interest of American citizens and allied countries.

I believe spying is crucial, critical and essential for any nation today. Especially when so much information is flying around the internet, there needs to be policies in place to protect the interests of any country (which can afford to invest in technological infrastructure) against any other nation. And lives have to be protected. Terrorist attacks have to be identified well in advance and defused. The scale of spying will of course differ from country to country, but no one is a saint in this matter. Everyone can be called a culprit !

So what the NSA has been doing is very important, and even the Russian President Vladimir Putin seems to suggest that spying is a required activity and supports NSA and the US Government !! Of course, he was a KGB spy in the past and we know what that means !!!

Well, so let us get out of our fixation about Edward Snowden and get on with our business. There will be only more, not less, spying going forward, and everyone should take it in a stride. Be careful about commercial or trade secrets though !


Vijay Srinivasan
22nd December 2013

Waste of Precious Time

The high-level talks in New York today between the prime ministers of India and Pakistan are unlikely to produce any real breakthrough, except shenanigans in front of the world media which does not believe what they are going to say anyway.

Instead of focusing on urgent and pressing domestic matters, the two countries are wasting time talking to each other.

Is it going to be of any use ?

None at all.

In fact the Pakistani army has already attempted to derail the impending talks by enabling militants to attack and kill many Indian soldiers last week. Has anything changed in Pakistan – nothing at all. The powerful army still controls everything, and the prime minister is just a dud when it comes to matters pertaining to India or Afghanistan.

So, the prime minister of India is going to waste time today talking to a prime minister who does not control what Dr Singh called as “epicentre of terrorism”. What is the big point here, except that Dr Singh is making all attempts to leave a positive legacy on Pakistan when he leaves office next year.

And, why is Pakistan wasting time ? They are talking to a prime minister widely perceived to be ineffective, and under constraint to take approval on all policy matters from his powerful party boss. Most importantly, Dr Singh is unlikely to be the prime minister after the next parliamentary elections – I don’t think he would want to be, even if the Congress Party could manage to form a coalition government with other corrupt parties.

So, it is just laughable that these two ineffective prime ministers with no real power to negotiate anything substantive are wasting time and taxpayer monies to meet on the sidelines of the U.N. Summit in New York today. It is to be noted that during their respective speeches yesterday, they accused each other !

How will they ever reach any positive conclusions ?

The Jammu and Kashmir problem is not going to be resolved in this manner. India has to be more rigorous in eliminating terrorist infiltration ruthlessly, with no fear or favour. It needs to bring the State under central government rule – the current State government is rather ineffective. It needs to communicate more vigorously to the local population that it is investing heavily in the infrastructure of the State, but they need to be more supportive of India and should not support the terrorists who will only bring more pain and death.

Is India having a game plan to tackle the problems in J & K ? Surely does not appear to be………any surprises ? None whatsoever. We have a feeble government in India and Pakistan knows it.

No point in negotiating with sponsors of terrorism.


Vijay Srinivasan
29th Sep 2013

Data Privacy and Government Intrusion

The recent incident of a contractor from NSA (National Security Agency) of the U.S. almost defecting to Hong Kong / China throws open a very relevant and rather interesting topic: the intrusion into the privacy of citizens by “Big Brother” or the Government.

There are arguments (mostly) against and for the government oversight affecting the privacy of millions of citizens and other nation states. How can one government (though the most powerful in the world) intrude into the private lives of other countries’ citizens and most clearly, into other governments’ secrets ? Under what laws of the land are these actions being taken ? Does it mean that the U.S. is not respecting the other countries’ laws on privacy, though often claiming to be the torch bearer of freedom and democracy, often accusing other countries of trampling on their citizens’ rights ?

Many, many questions and the blogosphere and the traditional / electronic media are full of such types of questions and interviews with prominent folks from society and government.

Let us look at this matter very objectively.

First, is anyone around the world so naive that he or she can assume that nobody is watching the goings on in the society in which they live, given all the terrorist attacks around the world ? Is it not the responsibility of the government of the day and law enforcement agencies to track what is going on ? How can anyone assume that all is hunky dory in their own society ? That is rather stupid, to say the least.

Second, look at examples of how criminals and terrorists are getting caught via data crunching of emails and webcam / video camera images, without even shedding a drop of blood in some cases ? Are we not reading newspapers and the electronic media to take note of the enhanced intelligence of law enforcement agencies ?

Third, the NSA mainframes and arrays of computers don’t “see or hear” anything – they just simply analyze the petabytes of data collected from a million sources and derive nuggets of actionable information, which can then be studied and actions taken. Who is listening to your conversation, or reading your emails – think about it for a minute. If you are not a targeted individual, why would a government waste thousands of dollars of computing time and analyst time on you ? You have no name in the computer !

Fourthly, if the U.S. Congress bans domestic eavesdropping by NSA (very unlikely), then NSA and FBI would have to move to conventional means of tapping phones which would then potentially “target” anyone – even the normal guy – around. Think about it – do you wish to return to the Cold War days ? Surely not.

There are many other reasons why the NSA mechanism is a better way of analysing the “Big Data” collected from various sources than the older ways of James Bond days.

Let us not raise a hue and cry. This is what has been happening for the past 7 years by NSA and several decades before that as well. If you have nothing to worry, then you will have nothing to worry, right ?

Let the criminals and terrorists worry, right ?


Vijay Srinivasan
15th June 2013

Not to be Trusted

The Indian Government took all the nonsense of Pakistan’s arguments against the official involvement of their spy agency and military in the 26/11 carnage in Mumbai. Despite all the proof, Pakistan still resists in extending full and unfettered cooperation.

Now, another example has come up: despite all their protestations to the contrary, 13 Indians are still being held in Pakistan jails – and look at this: they are Prisoners of War from the 1971 Indo-Pak war, which Pakistan lost so handsomely if you would recall, leading to the formation of Bangladesh from the erstwhile East Pakistan. Even after their prison terms were long over, the Indians are being held in Karachi’s jails.

What does this discovery shows ?

That we are stupid to believe our neighbours on their claims of innocence, on their protests that they are never involved officially in terror plots against India, that they are truly committed to developing a cordial relationship with India. That we are ignorant of their aims to eventually separate Kashmir from India. That they would attack us one day with their nuclear-armed missiles. That they would continue to taunt us in international forums on the Kashmir issue. That they would collaborate more with China to strangle India.

That they can never be fully trusted.


Unless and until, they have a fully democratic government, not controlled by their military.

Which is definitely not the case.

Are they ever going to realize that India is too big and actually stronger than ever to fight two wars at the same time ? If not today, in a couple of years time, India would mount an impenetrable shield to protect our borders from missile attacks. India would have a much stronger collaboration with the U.S. and Israel to counter Pakistan’s insidious aims to destroy our peace.

Instead of formulating an overarching strategy to counter Pakistan, we seem to be entertaining Mr Musharraf in Delhi, who goes up on stage and accuses India. This is nothing short of ridiculous. Freedom of speech has certain responsibilities and limits. Mr Musharraf is singularly responsible for the 1999 Kargil War in which India lost many soldiers and a good deal of self-respect. He is a persona non grata in his own country – Pakistan !

While olive branches are good as a show case of peace efforts on both sides – especially on the business side – we have to be very cautious about the nefarious intent of the military and spy agency of Pakistan who celebrated the 26/11 attacks in Mumbai, which exposed India’s weaknesses. We can never forget the loss of 166 innocent lives. We can never forgive Pakistan for its intransigence in cooperating with India.

Let us not trust blindingly. Even our culture does not condone it. The nation’s security cannot take second place to our need to shake hands.


Vijay Srinivasan
25th November 2012

Security in Maximum City

There has been a rapid deterioration in the security situation in Mumbai over the past 3 years or so.

I am not referring to the 26/11 terrorist attack or its aftermath.

I am referring simply to the cases of attack on innocent people by their own security guards. I have no bandwidth right now to write about the other aspects of the safety situation in the city, such as road accidents involving school buses for example, but I will eventually write about that aspect as well.

It appears that Mumbai has learnt the bad aspects of Delhi life. Delhi still steals the thunder when it comes to the reputation ranking of the worst biggest city in India wherein women are not safe, but it appears that Mumbai is fast catching up. Mumbai, incidentally, had (and sometimes has) the reputation for the safest big city in India, but is fast losing that.

The recent attacks on women staying alone in apartments by the building society’s own security guards are to be severely condemned. I did not see the government stepping up to the challenges. One simple thing to do is to disenfranchise all private security agencies in the city who are not “security-cleared” by the police.

We are endangering our people in two different ways – the private security agencies are not truly certified to do their work and the guards are not pre-approved or pre-registered to ensure quality, consistency and safety. This is like letting the cow graze its own backyard freely with no controls or safety checks.

Unfortunately, in India (like in almost everything), we tend to blame the government for all the ills of the society, and this case is no different. But the least that we can do is to ensure that the agencies we appoint in out own building societies are pre-cleared with the police, and there are adequate monitoring mechanisms provided so that the guards do not tinker with the automated security apparatus. The guards should never have access to the electricity supply to the apartment – it is not their job. The latest murder case in the city couple of days ago shows that such basic principles were violated. If the building society or the builder is lax in such areas, we have to be prepared otherwise to expect trouble.

Further, there is a feeling in Mumbai that it is indeed a safe city – many people have told me that it is far better than Delhi. This is a false feeling and should be discarded forthwith. In any place which has a wide disparity of incomes and living styles, there is bound to be jealousy and hunger for something better. While we cannot condone criminal actions based on that, we need to be adequately prepared for any consequences. People come to Mumbai from all over the country looking for jobs, and that cannot be stopped in a free country. The least we can do is to ensure our own safety and security by insisting on certain mechanisms for which we are paying our hard earned money in any case. Why not insist on quality ?

So, let us not forget safety and security in our own maximum city.


Vijay Srinivasan
11th August 2012

Home Guards

There must be at least 10 to 15 “watchmen” or home guards in the condo complex that I live in at Mumbai. In India, they call the security folks as watchmen in the home environment. In corporate environments, they are called security guards. It is a bit funny sounding as “watchmen” but that is the way it is.

Most of them know me and I am sure they know most of the folks living in the complex. While they are strict, they also show respect while sometimes diluting their watch if someone comes in a big car as “bigness” matters a lot in India. They always note the vehicle numbers entering and leaving the complex – the ones that do not have a permit to use their car parking facility.

The purpose of this post is to mention how little we care about these important folks who guard our homes and offices. While this may not be as important in the Western world, in the Indian security situation, the security guards are probably the most important people in ensuring the safety and security of the people, but are also the lowest paid and poorly trained in most cases.

So, I make it a point to wish them every time I see them, reinforcing the familiarity quotient and conveying respect for the important work that they are delivering, day in and day out.

I meet the same security guard or “watchman” in uniform every morning (almost religiously, while in town and not travelling) who opens the gym for me before 6 AM. He warmly wishes me “Good Morning, Sir” without a frown on his face though I go before the gym opening time every day. And, I smile and wish him back.

I also notice that most people do not wish the guards or smile at them. Not that such behaviour is going to affect their personal safety in any way, but it is clearly important to wish others who play a key role in ensuring our well-being and safety.

I was indeed touched a bit this morning when I went to the gym at the same time, and found the same security guard at the lobby of the gym. When I wished him and then signed in, he remarked “Sir, we were wondering why you did not come yesterday, worried what happened to you”. I smiled and told him that I was busy (though I did work out yesterday in the evening time and he was not the designated guard at that time, having gone through a shift change). He smiled back.

One thing we have to learn from the Western countries is how to show respect to all below our social status and treat them as almost equals or at least warmly every day. It might look funny when one wishes a newspaper vendor or a milkman or a security guard in India, but that is normal practice in the West. There is no difference based on religion, caste, race, social status or colour in the West. But we Indians still pay attention to all these outdated social customs and continue to suffer ostracism, whether we are up or down in the pecking order. We cannot claim to be one of the oldest and most polished civilizations if we still do not even attempt to fix this greatest anomaly in our lives.

Let us smile and wish everyone who we come across every day in our lives. It is not only important, it is required practice and it would make everyone feel good. I do this to the lift operator in my office and feel good when I see the smile and glow in his face, because no one else does it to him.


Vijay Srinivasan
11th December 2011

Choice for the United States

Today is 9/11, the 11th of September, marking the tenth anniversary of the 9/11 terror attacks on the U.S. by airborne terrorists.

That eventful and unfortunate day marked only the second time of an attack on U.S. soil, since the U.S. was hit after the Pearl Harbour attack almost seven decades ago by Japan.

In the last one decade, the U.S. has become more insular and security-conscious than any other large country in the world. It has probably spent USD 3 to 4 trillion dollars on the wars it has waged in Iraq, Afghanistan and West Pakistan, as well as in enhanced security protection by creating the Department of Homeland Security and other measures. It is another matter that when it has to create a jobs plan for Americans at some USD 447B, the government faces stiff opposition !

While the U.S. has successfully avoided any fresh terrorist attacks, India has endured more than a dozen acts of terrorist activities leading to significant loss of life. It shows the differing approaches in securing the security of citizens, some of the U.S. actions might have sacrificed the individual privacy of its citizens but such actions were required. India is still caught in a political quagmire, unable to execute a well thought-out security strategy which would take no prisoners. At the end of the day, it is the unrequited anguish of common people which will bring down the Indian Government, not enemy gunfire, and it is very surprising to see a government which does not realize this, or is refusing to learn from its own past failures and global examples.

The idea of this piece of writing is to point out the inevitable merger in the philosophies and practices of the world’s most powerful and its most populous democracies, which ought to have been a natural phenomenon all these years. Unfortunately the U.S. and India never saw eye to eye on most matters over the past six decades. Only after India aligned with the U.S. quickly in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and pledged its total support, did the U.S. figure out that is is only prudent to develop closer relationship with a tough, noisy, quarreling, yet dependable partner in India.

Over the past decade, the U.S. and India have come a long way, despite changes in government in India as well as in the U.S., though I would again state unambiguously that President Obama is not as focused on forging an even tighter relationship with India as did President George W Bush. Nevertheless, the point is that we are clearly set on an irreversible path of ever closer partnership with the Americans, and ultimately this partnership might lead to a strong military alliance, though the Indian Government will never get voluntarily drawn into such a discussion. I think it makes a lot of sense to formulate a straight U.S. – India alliance to safeguard the Indian Ocean and deepen the strengths of both in future-proofing the South Asian region. I would not advocate an extension of this partnership to include Japan or Australia, as that would be regarded warily by other countries in the neighbouring regions.

What is important is that the U.S. pledges its military support to India, like it has done with the NATO countries, to ensure democracy thrives in the region and peace and stability resulting from such an alliance would lead to increased business for all and prosperity for more than 2 billion people. It is critical to make intentions clear in this complex world of diplomacy, strategy, and mind-boggling Machiavellian manipulated political science, so that the potential adversaries take the new equation into their plans before launching inadvertent actions against India.

For the U.S. the choice should be clear – it should work on drawing India into its sphere of closer partnership, share technologies which would enhance the lives and security of 1.2 billion people, work on neutralizing the terrorists in collaboration with India, formulating a mutual security partnership and driving mutual business prospects for both nations into the 21st Century.

I would say that this is inevitable actually. Only time will tell. This requires the “open” thinking that Condoleeza Rice and President Bush brought to the table, and the leadership shown by Prime Minister Vajpayee in 2001.

Vijay Srinivasan
11th Sept 2011